Monday, May 25, 2020
Introduction From the beginning of time there have always been crimes against persons. People went by the saying Ã¢â¬Å"An eye for an eyeÃ¢â¬ . You stole from your neighbor, they stole from you. You hurt someone, they hurt you. It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t until the 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s people started taking a closer look into these crimes against person, which they later called victimology. This paper will look into victimology and their theories as we go back into the past and how victimology is now. Victimology: A Look into the Past The study of victimology dates back to the early 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s. Marvin Wolfgang was one of the first victimologists. To fully understand victimology is to understand what a victim is. A victim is a person that has suffered physical or emotional harmÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦A medium risk victim are really lower risk victims but was in the wrong place at the wrong time. A medium risk person could be a person that could be at the bank during a hold-up. Low risk victims are victims with a lifestyle that would not normally put them in danger. Low risk victims do not engage in risky behavior such as doing drugs, they are aware of their surroundings and stay away from danger. Equivalent group hypothesis suggests that victims and offenders are one and the same. That they are both part a high-risk lifestyle. Proximity hypothesis says that victims who live near crime are putting themselves at risk of becoming a victim. Someone who makes a little more than their neighbor can easily be a target of some sort of theft. The last theory, routine activities, has three variables. The first variable is the availability of target, the lack of guardianship, and the presence of motivated offenders. This means that there are offenders out there and their victim will be those who are unsuspecting and those without any sort of guardianship. Victim offender-relationships are defined as the victim and offender knowing each other before the victimization occurred. Most of these types are usually associated with rape and domestic abuse cases. The offender is probably a husband/wife, mother/father, sibling or close family friend. Victim-criminal justice system relates to how theShow MoreRelatedComparing Positivist And Radical Victimology Perspective1236 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Compare the positivist victimology perspective with either the radical or critical victimology perspective. Illustrate your answer with reference to at least one of following: age, class, gender, race and sexuality. Introduction The purpose of this essay is to demonstrate the different perspectives within victimology, specifically focusing on positivist and radical victimology perspectives. In arguing these similar but contrasting perspectives this essay will also signpost the relationship of theRead MoreCSI, The First Forty-eight, Date Line, Law and Order and Criminal Justice are just a few examples1400 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesof shows on the T.V. networks today that roll out a visual of the term victimology. According to Box 1.1 in the class text, Crime Victims, An Introduction to Victimology, by Andrew Aarmen, March 2012, victimology is the work done by law enforcement teams as they gather as much detailed information pertaining to a victimÃ¢â¬â¢s life while they were alive as they possibly can in order to help them identify the perpetrator of the crime, take them to court, and hopefully obtain a guilty verdict and appropriateRead MoreSimilarities Between Criminology And Victimology853 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pa gesand differences between Criminology and Victimology? They are many similarities and differenced between Criminology and Victimology. Criminology and Victimology are similar in the fact that it focuses it studies on the crime and the victim. Criminology and Victimology also share similarities in the effectiveness it gives to the criminal justice system. Criminology and Victimology also share similarities in the research, they look not just in to the crime itself, but into the psychological, socialRead MoreEssay on Ideal Victim1711 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesviews the Ã¢â¬Ëideal victimÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Å"as pure, blameless (hence passive) people against whom an evil act was omitted by a depraved individualÃ¢â¬ (Spalek, B. 2006 p25). Although most people can relate to an Ã¢â¬Ëideal victimÃ¢â¬â¢ there is a Ã¢â¬Ëpositivist perspectiveÃ¢â¬â¢ in victimology that defines the behaviour and circumstances of people can have a direct contribution to their victimisation. However, the Ã¢â¬Ëfeminist perspectiveÃ¢â¬â¢ would argue that by sug gesting a victim had aided in their victimisation would require the victimRead MoreThe Old Testament Of The Bible1608 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesbible does not include words such as Ã¢â¬Å"suspect, crime, criminal, or victimÃ¢â¬ there are concepts and descriptions used to describe such a person or behaviors. As the human race develops through time, advancements in criminology emerge and a better understanding of victims comes to life. Today, there are many different fields of study that relate to victimology and many disciplines are working together to better understand and explain why certain crimes happen to certain individuals. One of the firstRead MoreMerton s Strain Theory And Victimology Theories1483 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesstrain theory and victimology theories in order to compare and contrast three different criminological theories. It will focus on similarities and differences and some contradictions which my lie in these theories as well. Robert AgnewÃ¢â¬â¢s strain theory states that there are many strains and stresses in ones lives which could influence the likelihood of one committing a crime. The strain theory suggests there are two main factors that could influence ones decision to commit crimes. The first is theRead MoreThe United Nations Declaration Of Basic Principles Of Justice For Victims Of Crime And Abuse1521 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe 1985 United Nations Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power (REF 1) defines victim as Ã¢â¬Å"persons who individually or collectively, have suffered harm, including physical or mental injury, emotional suffering, economic loss or substantial impairment of their fundamental rights, through acts or omissions that are in violation of criminal laws operative within Member States, including those laws proscribing criminal abuse of powerÃ¢â¬ . Victimisation is theRead MoreThe Issue Of Domestic Violence1527 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages childr en, elderly or mentally/physically disabled people as well. Victimology is a topic that has been intriguing to me for a while. It certainly has come a long way since 1947 when Benjamin Mendelsohn coined the term. According to all the history that has been provided since that time many improvements have taken place. Such as the accessibility to information regarding the amount of individuals that are victims of any crime in any specific area at any time. All the reforms, movements and implementationsRead MoreCriminal Profiling And The Criminal Justice System1117 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesan individual who commits a crime, may leave some sort of psychological evidence that can be crucial to an investigation. This theory is a vital part of the criminal justice system today. Criminology targets why individuals commit crimes and why they behave in certain situations. By understanding why a person commits a crime, you can develop ways to control crime or change the criminal to a certain extent. There are many theories in criminology. Some characterize crime to the individual. They believeRead MoreWhich Gender Influences Patterns And Processes Of Victimisation, Identifying Key Victimological Perspectives And Typologies2548 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesacknowledging the argument that radical victimology offers a more balanced approach to gendered victimisation than positivist or critical viewpoints. The Sage Dictionary of Criminology (2013) defines victimisation as Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦a term originally used to designate an area of study concerned to address the relationship between the victim and offender.Ã¢â¬ It should be noted however that since the late 1970s, the term has been used to indicate a more general concern with the victim of crime. The Oxford English Dictionary
Thursday, May 14, 2020
A commonly held tenet among people from all generations is that hard work will ultimately lead to wealth and prosperity. This concept, illustrated in F. Scott FitzgeraldÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, The Great Gatsby, is known as the American Dream. Although many have this dream today, it is a one in a million chance to attain it, regardless of whether or not a person is tremendously deserving of such success. James Gatz, later known as Jay Gatsby, is a character who experiences this minute probability of the American Dream coming true. Through the character of Gatsby, Fitzgerald suggests that the American Dream is so difficult to achieve that it is unattainable. Gatsby hosts extravagant parties that imply that succeeding in the American Dream is mostÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Gatsby adding in the last line, that some people from New York might drop in, proposes the idea that Gatsby is attempting to make himself appear more prestigious since he is Ã¢â¬Å"closeÃ¢â¬ with people from the city. He also asks his visitors to stay for dinner so the people of East Egg can get to know him and hopefully accept him into the old wealth lifestyle. Though Gatsby tries to attain power and respect by throwing his extravagant parties, by the end of the novel, the reader is able to understand that he had gained neither before he died. The day of GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s funeral Ã¢â¬Å"the minister glanced several times at his watch, so [Nick] took him aside and asked him to wait for half an hour. But it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t any use. Nobody cameÃ¢â¬ (174). No one coming to GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s funeral shows that although Gatsby spent his whole life trying to gain respect from his peers as well as power in society, he failed to do both. If he had achieved respect by throwing his parties, some of the people who attended his parties would have paid their respects by appearing at his funeral. In the end, Gatsby throwing all of his parties did not pay off and his American Dream of attaining power and respect was not accomplished. Despite GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s strong desire for wealth, the accomplishment of reaching the American Dream is made even more difficult by his adoration of Daisy and her illusive kindness. Due to GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s past and his strong yearning for wealth, the moment heShow MoreRelatedGatsbys American Dream Essay1724 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthroughout the novel. This novel is mainly about Gatsbys attempt at an unattainable goal, winning Daisys love back through power and money. In contrast to every main character, Gatsby has clear and well thought out dreams. GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s American dream, his desire to be wealthy and win Daisy back, is desperately ruined by Daisy. GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s goal that he tries to obtain by committing crimes not only deserves not to be achieved but also is worse than having no dream. Nick meets Gatsby in East Egg, a place whereRead MoreGatsbys Pursuit of the American Dream Essay827 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Gatsbys Pursuit of the American Dream The American Dream means that by persistently working hard, one can achieve success; this is in contrast to other countries where the immigrants came from, in which one was either born into money and privilege or not, and if you werent, there was no way of achieving this success. The American Dream eliminated the barriers between people that social class had held for centuries in Europe. The Great Gatsby, by F. Scott Fitzgerald, shows the corruption of theRead MoreGreat GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s Commentary on the American Dream Essay1265 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesis exchanged for one based on greed and lies, where characters with stop at nothing to attain what they desire. Fitzgerald provides a window into the American Dream, and shows that it has become one based on immorality and deception. Although the marriage of Daisy and Tom Buchanan may have been based on love and devotion, it, like the American Dream as a whole, has been corrupted to become disingenuous and predatory. Tom and Daisy are two people who are content with the somewhat platonic relationshipRead MoreGatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s Unrealistic American Dream in The Great Gatsby, by F. Scott Fitzgerald960 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe term Ã¢â¬Å"American DreamÃ¢â¬ is defined as an idea which believes that all people have the possibility of prosperity and success. The idea first came from James Adams, a noted American writer and historian. He claimed, Ã¢â¬Å"Life should be better and richer and fuller for everyone, with opportunity for each according to ability and achievement.Ã¢â¬ Therefore, the core concepts of the American Dream were closely linked to hard work and opportunity. However, this idea began to lose its value when people startedRead More Jay Gatsby as Tragic Hero of Fitzgeralds The Great Gatsby Essay974 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesdefined importance. Gatsby has endless wealth, power and influence but never uses material objects selfishly. Everything he owns exists only to attain his vision. Nick feels inclined to reserve all judgements (1), but despite his disapproval of Gatsbys vulgarity, Nick respects him for the strength and unselfishness of his idealism. Gatsby is a romantic dreamer who wishes to fulfill his ideal by gaining wealth in hopes of impressing and eventually winning the heart of the materialistic, superficialRead More Fitzgeralds The Great Gatsby and the Tragic Hero Essay977 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesGatsby can be defined as a tragic hero who possesses all of the aforementioned traits.Ã Ã Jay Gatsbys main desire in life is to become a member of high society, respected more than anyone else.Ã Gatsby has taken steps to ensure that this desire becomes a reality.Ã He has accumulated wealth, power, and influence, all in an attempt to create the sparkling image of a successful man.Ã Although Gatsbys friend Nick is inclined to reserve all judgements (1), Gatsby is a strong, unselfish idealistRead MoreSummary Of The Color Yellow By F. Scott Fitzgerald1667 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages1. Yellow Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"the orchestra is playing yellow cocktail music,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"two girls in twin yellow dresses who stopped at the foot of the steps,Ã¢â¬ GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"yellow car.Ã¢â¬ In the novel, the color yellow is associated with wealth which Fitzgerald develops in order to associate the color with Gatsby by having it be the color of his car and be very present at his parties. Affairs/Cheating Ã¢â¬â Tom and Myrtle, and Gatsby and Daisy. In the novel, affairs are very prevalent and are associated with characters of wealthRead MoreThe Great Gatsby And The Death Of A Salesman1328 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageshis vision of the truth and his vision to success. The Ã¢â¬Å"American DreamÃ¢â¬ is the Ã¢â¬Å"dreamÃ¢â¬ that all Americans are granted the same chance to attain their life goals whether is it success, a perfect family, or wealth through hard work, willpower, grit and initiative. These two men though, have dissimilar American Dreams. WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s dream is financial success for himself in addition to his children; on the other hand, GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s dream is getting his Ã¢â¬Å"dreamÃ¢â¬ life since childhood which was attaining money, a beautifulRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book Milkman s Journey 2003 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesPilates house, to his surprise he was drawn to the music and the liveliness that was protruding her house. If Pilate and Macon would have stayed together and been able to support each other maybe they would have been ab le to successfully fulfill their dreams. Even though wealth hand success Macon remains unhappy. As the novel goes on we learn MilkmanÃ¢â¬â¢s true emotions when his father was telling him a story, Ã¢â¬Å"Deep down in that pocket where his heart hid, he felt used. Somehow everybody was using him forRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1543 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesParagraph The American Dream is a dream about possibilities, and a desire for success. Sometimes you can interpret the dream for money, sometimes for love regardless of what the you think it is, the dreamer works hard to reach this goal. In the novel The Great Gatsby, Jay Gatsby is driven by his desire to achieve the American Dream. Unfortunately, GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s drive to achieve the dream also results in him falling victim to it. Essentially, Gatsby falls victim to the American Dream because he is forced
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Leadership Responsibilities CJM 307 Abstract Ethical leadership in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s law enforcement agency is everybodyÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibility. From line level officer to the chief each play an important part in assuring that police officers serve the communities they are in using ethical standards that are practiced everyday in every situation. Leadership Responsibilities Leadership is showing the way and helping or inducing others to pursue it. This entails envisioning a desirable future, promoting a clear purpose or mission, supportive values and intelligent strategies, and empowering and engaging all those concerned. (Cordner 2014). This quote fromÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¯â § Was the first chief to use the lie detector in investigations (1921) Ã¯â § Was one of the first to use fingerprints to identify suspects Ã¯â § Vollmer hired one of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s first African-American cops (1919) and the first female cop (1925) Ã¯â § Suggested that the role of police is to prevent crime rather than just to solve it. To understand the criminal mind better, Vollmer visited the jail each morning to talk to prisoners and corresponded extensively with men he had put in prison. As I look at this list it amazes me that in the early 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s Vollmer was insistent on college education. This requirement on desire during the hiring process kind of went away for many years but not is resurfacing and the competition is so great in law enforcement that typically you will not get hired if you do not have a degree. It would have been great if many of VollmerÃ¢â¬â¢s other ideas specifically the ones regarding ethical behavior would have been followed better throughout law enforcementÃ¢â¬â¢s history. So how can departments get back to the ethical behaviors that Vollmer instituted. The problem with ethic and morals is that everybody has their own sets depending on a variety of factors. Depending on culture, where you grew up and many other influences your set of ethics or what you truly think are the right things to do can be vastly different from others. When somebody enters into a law enforcement career they bring thing ethics and values and then a reShow MoreRelatedThe Leadership Of Leadership And Leadership842 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesideals of leadership, I met with two respected and admired school leaders: the Assistant Principal/Dean of Curriculum, and the Athletic Director. I chose these two school leaders because I wanted to gain an understanding of leadership from two diverse perspectives. I am thankful for the opportunity to hear from two different types of leaders, who ultimately share a lot of the same visions for my school and for leadership in general. While both subjects shared a similar definition of leadership, theirRead MoreLeadership And Leadership Of Leadership1711 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages7. Facilitative Leadership Facilitative leadership is dependent on quantities and outcomes Ã¢â¬â not a skill, though it takes much skill to master. The efficiency of a group is directly related to the effectiveness of its process. If the group is high operational, the facilitative leader uses a light hand on the procedure. 8. Laissez-faire Leadership Laissez-faire leadership gives expert to workers. According to AZ central, sections or subordinates are acceptable to work as they choose with nominal.Read MoreLeadership : Leadership And Leadership1605 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesLeadership Examined There have been many great leaders down through history. Leaders that have influenced change throughout many aspects of society. Great leaders have great influence. The effectiveness of a leader is determined by his leadership style. With so many styles to choose from, and the fact that not one style fits all situations, becoming an effective leader is a challenging task. One reflective note is that it is important to cultivate good leadership skills. One must evaluate personalRead MoreLeadership : Leadership And Leadership1225 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages with their team. Leadership is Ã¢â¬Å"the behavior of an individual . . . directing the activities of a group toward a shared goalÃ¢â¬ (Hemphill Coons, (1957). p. 7). Ã¢â¬ ¢ Leadership is Ã¢â¬Å"the influential increment over and above mechanical compliance with the routine directives of the organizationÃ¢â¬ (Katz Kahn, (1978). p. 528). Ã¢â¬ ¢ Leadership is Ã¢â¬Å"the process of influencing the activities of an organized group toward goal achievementÃ¢â¬ (Rauch Behling, (1984). p. 46). Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬Å"Leadership is about articulatingRead MoreLeadership : Leadership And Leadership1476 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesLeadership Effectiveness There are many different approaches to leadership, which can be dependent upon the task at hand. Some leaders are authoritative, making all the decisions for group members and allowing no space for error or input. There are those who may opt to take the President Obama approach with a more democratic leadership role, inviting the ideas of others and encouraging open communication and staff participation. Then there are the servant leaders whom are largely respected and followedRead MoreLeadership And Leadership Theory Of Leadership1341 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesLeadership Application Jesus Cabral Brandman University The author of this paper has been in various leadership positions for over 20 years. Some positions held by the author have been team leader, Operations Manager, General Manager, and Director of Operations. The author has lead teams with various degrees of education and from many cultures. The leadership theories studied during OLCU 400 will assist this leader though experienced to become much more effective and focus on thoseRead MoreLeadership, Leadership And Leadership Development915 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagestake a leadership role in any activity. They are more valued by followers and have higher performing teams. (Cherry 2014) However, leaders are the ones that use their leadership skills to make a difference in this world, such as presidents, teachers, or even college graduates. Leadership is not something you can learn from a book, but you have to gain this skill through experiences such as holding an office, organizing an event, speaking in front of people, or participating in a leadership programRead MoreLeadership Theories Of Leadership And Leadership Essay771 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesLeadership is important because it helps followers reach a common goal. There have been several studies based on effective leadership. The definition of leadership has evolved over the years adapting to the different views of the world. Leaders have influence on their followers they are looked up to. Being a leader means there will be interaction with different behaviors and personalities. Effective leaders sometimes have to adjust their style approach by the situation they are in. Every followersRead MoreTransformational Leadership : Leadership And Leadership887 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe idea of leadership has transformed throughout the years to encompass varying aspects of leadership approaches, leadership types and the like. According to Summerfield (2014), C. F. Rauch and O. Behling, quote leadership as: Leadership is the process of influencing the activities of an organized group toward goal achievement. Given its broad definition, leadership is understood to have different meanings when applied to diverse situations. For example, there are different types of approaches toRead MoreOrganizational Leadership : Leadership And Leadership1568 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesConceptualizing Leadership Leadership is different in the eyes of each and every individual. What one person considers great leadership may be viewed by another as too demanding. Ultimately, time, place, situation, and people involved are considered some of the view variables for which type of leadership will be most effective. Through taking the Gallup Strengths Finder survey, I have been able to cement some of my top strengths and see how they come into play in my daily life. Learning about strengths
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the transformation from the Ethics of Care. Answer: Introduction Corporate governance refers to the set of policies and conducts which are used by an organization to direct and control the entire work process. The way in which authority and accountability flow between the stakeholders, Shareholders, CEOs and the various managers in the company is known as corporate governance (Tricker Tricker, 2015). The managers and shareholders have a common interest in respect to the companys growth (Beery Wilcox, 2015). However, the problem occurs when these interests diverge in their intentions and take a personal turn rather than the shared common goals. An organization must have one interest group that follows the common interest of companys growth so that in return they are served with better incentives for their hard work in taking the company to the dream position. The situation worsens when the interest groups are more than one and people are enriching themselves rather than the company. The managers or the moral agents of the company are far more exp ert and fluent with the aspects of management than the shareholders (Glinkowska, 2017). This can lead to them taking decisions that are meant for personal benefits rather than long-term benefits of the company. The report aims to shed light on the various issues of corporate governance together with the ethics that are to be maintained by the moral agents of the company. WorldCom and Bernard L. Madoff Investment Securities faced decline due to their misconduct towards the ethics of corporate governance. The moral agents, namely Bernard Ebbers and Bernard Madoff of the respective companies will be taken into consideration for the report. The success of a company in the market and the extent of trust it garners among its shareholder depends on the various values that are to be maintained by the company agents to ensure stability in the market. The moral agents have the immense duty to abide by the ethics and to understand that they are responsible towards the all those who are associa ted with the company (Harris, 2013). The discussion will lead to a better understanding of the practical implementation of these ethics and guidelines that are to be followed by the morals agents of a company. Ethical Theories According to Goldman, ethical theories cover the field that systemizes, defends and randomizes the ideas of right or wrong behavior pattern A person who works as the agent of a company dealing with the moral aspects of the working process must have the capacity and ability to perform in a moral way and make proper moral judgments. The company executives who works as the moral agents are the ones who need to have a rational thinking base and the individual must always resort to ethical and virtuous practices. According to Melden, the ethical theories can be divided into two further segments- Consequentialist theories Non- consequentialist theories Consequentialism set of normative ethics believe that an action is judged as right or wrong by the result it creates after implementation. This set of theorists believes that it cannot be decided that a decision taken up by a moral agent was wrong unless we find the results from the decision taken (Carlson, 2013). It is often found that at times the moral agents take some harsh decisions that are not abiding by the ethical code but they end up adding positively to the company. Hence, only the outcome decides if the step taken was right or wrong. The consequential theories are- Egoism Utilitarianism Egoism theory is a consequential business theory that pursues self-interest as the primary target (Broad, 2014). The theory is an opposite of altruism, as the latter believes in the benefit of others rather than the benefit of self in the ethical egoism theory (Salmieri, 2015). The individual gain is the biggest motive that fuels the egoist moral agents and this leads to realization of the fact that an egoist is not selfish. However, the words egoist and selfish are relatively similar but it is not necessary for an egoist to be selfish. The egoists pursue individual advantage and if this can be done by helping others than that is what they will do so that the ultimate benefit is associated to them. It does not necessarily mean that egoists behave maliciously and treacherously with others. There are two kinds of egoists: Personal egoist who only care for their own interests, and the impersonal egoists, who are those individuals that claim that the chasing ones interest will motivate t he entire the group (MacDonald, 2015). Utilitarian theory of business ethics refer to the theory that suggests that the selection of a decision depends on the extent of benefit it will incur to the maximum number of people. A decision will be taken for the maximum benefit and whatever is decided will be regarded as the ethical decision if it results in incurring the maximum benefit for the people associated with it (Neher Sandin, 2015). The short-term benefits are targeted or the long-term ones remains a foremost concern of utilitarian theory being in practice. As it is, something that is targeted for the maximum benefit hence the duration of the benefit ripped from the decision is something that the executives must be concerned with while using this theory in their work process. The non-consequential theories of refer to the set of business theories that fall under the set of normative theory. This set of theory belives that a decision should be taken keeping in mind the goodness and morality rather than always thinking of the possible outcome that may profit or loss. The theories are based on the moral goodness and badness of a decision that will be taken by the company moral agents. The Non-consequentialist theories that are applicable in business are as follows- Virtue theory Kants ethics Ethic of care Virtue theory is a non-consequential business ethic that deals with making decisions based on certain virtues that ensure the desired result. The virtue in virtue theory lies in selecting the trait that is required to select between the extreme points of decision making that involves either courage or cowardice in the managers part (Bell, Dyck Neubert, 2017). The agent is continuously involved in finding a way to get a balance between the two extremes. The various virtues that guide the decision making process are courage, integrity, wisdom and fairness. Virtue ethics pursues morally approved excellence to achieve flourishing. According to Vaughn, the virtues taken into consideration can be divided into two categories: self-regarding and other-regarding. The main feature of this practice lies in its core concept of development being a fundamentally moral process. Kants theory of business ethics deals with the need of the human being to respond to the moral needs firstly without any second thought. If there is a need to do something that is moral an immediate moral requirement then the individual should look no further and do the duty. Kant believed that human beings are blessed to have a rational thought system and they should use it to the greater extent because no other being in the world has that ability (Bowie, 2017). Kants idea of categorical imperative is something that he refers to as universal law. For all human beings the categorical imperative has to be the same so that people respond morally to the requirements that arise in their immediate surroundings (Kant, 2014). The decision making process of the managers must be inclined towards the idea of categorical imperative. People should not be treated as resources that will help in meeting the ultimate goal, a morally healthy bond and thinking has to be kept so that people do not lose their trust on the organization and they do not further feel being only used for the advantage of the company. The critics have argued that whether the categorical imperative will always lead to the betterment of the company is a huge question that can never be answered with any surety. A person being used as means is a concept that is under the scanner to get a better idea that what Kant actually meant by this use that he refers to. Ethics of care is an approach that is distinctive to moral theory that gives importance to responsibility, relationship and concern unlike the utilitarianism or the deontologism (Barnes, Conradi Vosman, 2015). This concept is relevant for people who care for other individuals and are so much eager to be of help that they can even break rules and ethics just to be morally correct. The ethics of care theory questions that whether the justice is being conveyed correctly to the person along with ensuring equality. This thought and ethical practice has emotions attached to it, as the person thinks himself in place of the sufferer and takes the decision based on the emotional impulse that comes in the mind (Muhtadie et al., 2014). The suffering of any person is not to be withstood by those who follow this theory in their business practice. However, the critics have rightly pointed that such a thought will restrict an individual from thinking rationally in situations that may be extremely emotional in nature. Individuals with emotional mindset may indulge in taking regular wrong decisions due to the constant emotional pressure put on them. It can be the a weak point that will be regularly used by people to get their task done by the person. Proper application and understanding the actual need to use the theory ultimately depends on the person who will take the decision. Application of ethical theories Corporate governance and the ethics that are related to it are the most important part of organizations sustainability in the market. A breach in these ethics can lead to serious consequences on part of the organizations overall image and position in the market. Below listed are two recent case studies that prove the above statement. Bernard Madoff Bernerd Madoff was the CEO of Bernard L. Madoff Investment Securities. The company was popular among people at a time for providing high returns on the investments that would be made in it. The rates of return were very consistent and high. People started realizing that this entire money making scheme may be part of Madoffs greater plan of running a Ponzi scheme amidst the people (Ponzi, 2015). The level of assurance for the unrealistic returns that the investments were paying was something that raised many eye brows and lead to many investigations by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). The competitors in the market were alarmed by such rates of return that were nowhere close to what was being prevalent in the regular market scenario. It was furthermore discovered that fake trading was being practiced on Madoffs name to generate money to refund to the people who were investing in the scheme. The trading was doubted to be taking place through an independent third party and n ot directly on Madoffs name (West, 2017). As the investigations progressed, SEC could not find sufficient evidence to show that Madoff was running a ponzi fraud and this lead Madoff to using this clean image to popularize his investment schemes more. The stunt allowed him to add credibility to his investment ideas and he presented those in a way that everyone realized that the schemes were good and had nothing wrong about them because the SEC could not find anything. On part of the SEC it can be seen that they did not indulge into the deeper aspects of this case to find out the actual ponzy scheme that was being operated by Madoff to gain profit for the investments. Madoff was an egoist person to the core and only thought about achieving wealth and creating a huge image in the market as someone who could sense the financial trends in the market. His ideas are consequentialist in nature and follow the lines of egoism closely to achieve faith in the market and create an image of dependability. He was also held responsible for mishandling huge amounts of money of investors for personal benefit. For him nothing ever existed than his happiness and financial greed. Being an agent of the company and dealing with the moral and immoral practices in and out of the company, Bernard Madoff was completely immoral and had no wish to work for the betterment of the company (Monaghan OFlynn, 2017). Breaking the ethics lead to massive debacle in the company image and the company had to finally come down in front of the law. Dismissing the non-consequentialist idea that was propounded by the greatest minds like Kant leads to many levels of imbalance in the entire work process. The agency managers should learn and follow the non-consequential theories that enable a greater sustainability to the organization. The morality of the company should remain same in every situation and the requirements of others should be seen as the foremost concern when it comes to taking decisions. It is not always the case that taking a consequentialist decision or strategy leads to loss but when personal motives are imbibed then it leads to devastating outcomes such as the case of Bernard Madoff (Baron, Zhao Miao, 2015). Bernard Ebber (WorldCom fraud) The WorldCom fraud was one of the biggest public accounting fraud in the history of global corporate. There was found more than $11 billion of fraudulent entries in the accounts of WorldCom. The fraud amount was so huge that it made up about 29% of the annual revenue for the year 2002 (Wisner Brown, 2015). The fraud was a joint action by the top-level accountant and managers of the WorldCom and the person heading this fraud was Bernard Ebbers, the CEO of WorldCom. The organizational control was weak that allowed such fraud to happen inside the company and as because it was a top-level conspiracy, nobody from the organization even tried to whistle blow the entire thing out in public. The company started schemes that reversed allowances to the customers and this allowance was without any strong justification. The motive for such a huge fraud had two intentions Corporate and Personal. The company had a down and degrading economical situation, they were nowhere near meeting the Wall St reet expectation from them, and to hide these discrepancies they came up with the idea to fraud the financial reports that became their corporate motive. On the other hand, the personal motive included the enrichment of personal wealth and power with the use of corporate assets. According to Gottschalk, Bernard Ebbers pursued power and advancements in the professional career and for that purpose; he manipulated the numbers largely in the financial reports. Ebbers filled up the expenses of the company as its investments, which lead to inflated figures in the profit of WorldCom (Kashyap, 2017). The inflated figures allowed the company to gain a heightened status in the market and impressed everyone with such a huge growth in their economics. Bernard gimmicked the finances to prove that the company was speeding to victorious growth whereas the truth was something else and WorldCom was deteriorating every passing day in its financial aspects. The image of a company rests on the shoulder of those who are at the position of creating a better company profile in the market. The company has a face that earns trust from those in the market. It takes years to build the relationship that enables a company to work with profit and popularity in the industry it is catering. The public relations of the company maintains this image but the top level officials are the actual face representatives of the large companies that exist in the business. Bernard Ebbers was in such a position for the WorldCom and his extensive misuse of the power led to the complete abolition of the company from the market as people lost faith in it. Being egoist in nature, Ebbers only pursued his self-interest and the motive was extremely selfish in the decisions he took for the company. The consequences were not aligned to the needs of the people associated with the company and this immoral approach ultimately lead to the fall of WorldCom. The lack of transpar ency in the organizational structure leads to the prevalence of the misconduct inside the company. No one even raised a voice against the practice and the fact was that people were not even aware of the practice that was going on constantly in the company. Every member should be well communicated with the company in entirety; Ebbers intentionally weakened the internal communication so that people were mostly left in dark about the fraud in accounts. The lack of ethical constraints on the part of Ebbers was clear because he did not care what others will go through due to the steps he were taking in pursing his own goal and the greater good of the company was being led down. Conclusion The corporate governance allows for a better functioning of the entire organization and it is further ensured by the use of ethics that are necessary to ensure a proper functioning of the system in a moral direction. Both the cases that were studied in the report give an idea that when the codes of ethics are broken, the corporate governance is pushed to negligence the entire organization suffers from losses, and a complete disruption in the work system occurs. Both the Bernards were found chasing their own accomplishments and this pursuance of self-interest led them to taking resort to many unethical practices that completely devastated the company image in the market. Bernard Madoff and Bernard Ebbers were both egoist in nature and they were personal egoist. While we see that Madoff was providing out successful returns to his investors that made him impersonal to certain extent but for the larger part he is found to be a personal egoist because he wanted to establish his image as s omeone who is blessed with the understanding of the investment market. Bernard Ebbers on the other hand is an absolute personal egoist and he only manipulated the figures in WorldCom reports to show that he was superior than others in the trade and people would consider him a successful CEO of the company because he attained such huge growth. The motive was to meet the expectation of the Wall Street but the way taken to meet the expectation was unethical inflation of the profit figures in the accounts of WorldCom. This was done without keeping in mind any future aspect of the practiced manipulation, Ebbers was blinded by the greed to increase wealth and gain more power in the industry. What ensued as a result was the fall of WorldCom from being one of the most successful telecom companies to being reputed as a company that lead recorded one of the biggest financial frauds in America and the entire corporate globe. To conclude it is evident that malpractice and ignorance towards main taining transparency in the corporate governance and misconduct of the business can lead to complete destruction of a companys image and position in the market. Pursuance of personal interest does lead to extensive loss to the company in totality and should be avoided at any cost. The egoism theory is something that should not be always regarded as negative; both the cases show an egoist approach of the agency manager towards the working style and target of the company being aligned to personal targets and fulfillments. It is to be noted that there are more people around the globe with a egoist approach and in those cases the personal interest is directly aligned to the betterment of the company in totality and hence leads to better consequences after their successful implications. Reference Barnes, M., Conradi, E., Vosman, F. (2015). Deliberation and Transformation from the Ethics of Care. Baron, R. A., Zhao, H., Miao, Q. (2015). Personal motives, moral disengagement, and unethical decisions by entrepreneurs: Cognitive mechanisms on the slippery slope.Journal of Business Ethics,128(1), 107-118. Bell, G. G., Dyck, B., Neubert, M. J. (2017). ETHICAL LEADERSHIP, VIRTUE THEORY, AND GENERIC STRATEGIES.Radical Thoughts on Ethical Leadership, 113. Berry, J. M., Wilcox, C. (2015).The interest group society. Routledge. Bowie, N. E. (2017).Business ethics: A Kantian perspective. Cambridge University Press. Broad, C. D. (2014).Five types of ethical theory(Vol. 2). Routledge. Carlson, E. (2013).Consequentialism reconsidered(Vol. 20). Springer Science Business Media. Glinkowska, B. (2017). Qualities of manager-leader of the near futureresults of the research.Management,21(1). Goldman, A. I. (2015).Theory of human action. Princeton University Press. Gottschalk, P. (2018). Sample of US Investigation Reports. InInvestigating White-Collar Crime(pp. 95-119). Springer, Cham. Harris, J. (2013). Ethics is for bad guys!Putting the moralinto moral enhancement.Bioethics,27(3), 169-173. Kant, I. (2014). The Good Will and the Categorical Imperative.The Ethical Life: Fundamental Readings in Ethics and Moral Problems, 87-99. Kashyap, R. (2017). How World-Com Pulled a World-Con? Finding Facts within Fiction!!!(Presentation Slides). MacDonald, J. B. (2015). Analyzing the Effects of Egoist and Utilitarian Evaluations on Subjects Responses to (Un) ethical Salesperson Behavior. InProceedings of the 2000 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference(pp. 282-287). Springer, Cham. Melden, A. (2013).Ethical theories. Read Books Ltd. Monaghan, L. F., O'Flynn, M. (2017). The Madoffization of Irish society: from Ponzi finance to sociological critique.The British journal of sociology,68(4), 670-692. Muhtadie, L., Johnson, S. L., Carver, C. S., Gotlib, I. H., Ketter, T. A. (2014). A profile approach to impulsivity in bipolar disorder: the key role of strong emotions.Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica,129(2), 100-108. Neher, W., Sandin, P. (2015).Communicating ethically. Routledge. Ponzi, A. G. M. S. (2015). Scheme in Eastern Europe. Salmieri, G. (2015). Egoism and Altruism.A Companion to Ayn Rand, 130. Tricker, R. B., Tricker, R. I. (2015).Corporate governance: Principles, policies, and practices. Oxford University Press, USA. Vaughn, L. (2015).Doing ethics: Moral reasoning and contemporary issues. WW Norton Company. West, J. (2017). The Dialogues of Bernie Madoff's Ponzi Fraud: An Exploration of the Discourses of Greed, Cliques, Peer Pressure, and Error.International Journal of Semiotics and Visual Rhetoric (IJSVR),1(1), 47-55. Wisner, D. L., Brown, B. A. (2015). Corporate Toxicity: The WorldCom/MCI Scandal.
Thursday, April 9, 2020
Monday, March 9, 2020
Oddyseus essays In the Odyssey, Homer created the character Odysseus. There are many sides to his personality. The book shows Odysseus as a family man. It shows him as a compassionate man. He also makes mistakes and has weaknesses. In the Odyssey, Odysseus shows his love for his family. He surmounts many obstacles and gets back home to Ithaca. There his faithful wife, Penelope, and his son Telemachus awaited his return. He wanted to be with his family so badly that he turned down immortality and life with the beautiful goddess, Calypso, in exchange to get back home. When he reaches Ithaca, he fights and kills the suitors that wanted to steal his home and family. Other traits in Odysseus' character are his compassion and patience. For example, in the book he shows his concern and compassion on Circe's Island. She transformed his men into pigs. After he found out, he put his own life in danger, and saved his crew. Odysseus' patience is also an important trait. He thinks things through before he acts. His patience has spared him and his men many times in the story. He uses this back in Ithaca when he was an old beggar. He waited for the right time to reveal his identity. On the other hand, Odysseus still had many human weaknesses. He was too proud and boastful. This shows when him and his men were on the island of the cyclopes. Their ship had already left the island safely. But Odysseus brags about what he did to Polythemus. The giant hears this and throws boulders towards their ship. The ship came very close to sinking. He accidently gives his name away and Polythemus calls Poseidon to punish him. This incident e ...
Saturday, February 22, 2020
Metabolic research critique - Essay Example According to the paper, there are approximately 300 accounted types of inherited metabolic diseases (IMD) and there is a continuous increase and the authors of the article perceived the importance of early identification of the presence of IMD in the system of the patients. The challenge is that there is a higher percentage of diagnosis during 15 years and above than in the first year of life but this can make the different since early diagnosis is important. The subjects have indications of possible IMD undertaken (both confirmed and suspected). The research objective is stated on the last part of the background of the study. It is to be able to establish a gene expression signature to be able to improve detection of IMD earlier than normal diagnostic techniques. The subject of the research or the population had been described in the methodology clearly. These 68 patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ human skin fibroblast cells became the subjects of the research after being cultured and tested for Mycoplasma infection. One criticism regarding the population can be related to the number of subjects. Based on the rules of scientific research, it is important to have a higher number of subjects to be able to improve validity. The methods used in the research had also been stated and organized clearly. This part of the paper is one of the longest and most specific part of the study with clear distinction of the fact that the paper is technical and that most of the readers are peers who can relate to the subject matter and the techniques presented such as the RNA extraction, the determination of the microarrays, the gathering and analysis of the mycroarray data, and finally the PCR and sequencing analysis. In relation to the technical presentation of the methodology, the different concepts, terms and variables are defined in a manner that only the related parameters and values are given and not defined in a laymanÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective. It can be considered that